How might the workforce above have produced such poor concrete in their kicker?
This image is taken from the Grace Adprufe System BBA Certificate 06/4319.
The concrete is being segregated (bleeding) by the poker held still and obviously any concrete in the kicker is sinking into the slab.
Kickerless Formwork.All these ways to avoid kickers are acceptable.
All kickerless formwork needs bracing to keep it upright since it cannot be clamped to a kicker.